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Carbon dioxide

Summary

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an industrial gas used in a broad range of activities such as for aerating beverages, chemical synthesis and as a processing aid at Western Australia's alumina refineries. It is normally produced as a by-product and not specifically synthesised (except in the Solvay Process). Carbon dioxide is produced by CSBP at their ammonia plant and about 1 000 tonnes is sold to Alcoa as an aid to processing.

The Kyoto Protocol requires industrialised countries to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by an annual average of about 5 per cent below 1990 levels for the years 2008 to 2012. World production is around 7.1 billion tonnes (of which 4.5 is absorbed by plants and the sea). (One hectare of forest can absorb 23 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year.) Though 84 signatories, only 16 have been ratified. Australia is party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Australian Government Policy

In September 2000, the Federal Government said it will not introduce greenhouse measures which will affect industry competitiveness. 

The key Government commitments included in the announcement are:

- To maintain the competitiveness of Australian industry

- To not introduce a mandatory emissions trading scheme in Australia until Australia has ratified the Kyoto Protocol, the Protocol has entered into force and an international trading scheme is in place. Even then, the Government will only introduce a scheme in Australia if it is in the national interest.

- To avoid measures which disadvantage companies taking early action to reduce emissions.

Production

In YYYY, carbon dioxide emissions in Australia were estimated at 275 million tonnes of which 45 per cent was by the power industry, ## per cent was by the gas industry.

Power Industry

...more coming soon...

Gas Industry

The Woodside operated North West Shelf gas project off Western Australia was estimated to be extracting 0.5 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year as a by-product of natural gas production (2.4 mol per cent in natural gas) in Stage #.

The Chevron operated Gorgon gas project off Western Australia was estimated to be extracting 1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year as a by-product of natural gas production (15 mol percent in natural gas) in Stage I.

Other gas producers are extracting smaller amounts of carbon dioxide from the gas.

 

In 1994, carbon dioxide emissions in Asia were estimated as:.

China: 8,284.36 million tonnes

Japan: 3,032.67 million tonnes

India: 2,364.48 million tonnes

South Korea: 918.53 million tonnes

Indonesia: 669.64 million tonnes

Thailand: 395.35 million tonnes

Malaysia: 395.35 million tonnes